Accepted name: Dendrochilum simulacrum Ames, Orchidaceae 2: 92 (1908)

Subgenus – Acoridium. Section – Convoluta.




Acoridium simulacrum (Ames) Ames, Orchidaceae 7: 82 (1922).


Origin in the Wild




Elevation in the Wild


1995 metres


Habitat in the Wild


This type species was recorded as growing on trees and was found at the top of Mount Toglon in Benguet Province. This species has also been collected from Mount Santo Thomas in Benguet Province and Lucban in Quezon Province. This species has been recorded growing along forest margins and on mountain tops.


The Plants Description


The pseudobulbs cluster on a short rhizome and are shaped fusiform to nearly terete. The pseudobulbs measure 1.3-4.0cm long and 0.3-0.4cm in diameter. The pseudobulbs are covered by c4 cataphylls while they are growing. The cataphylls soon disintegrate into persistent fibres as the pseudobulbs mature. The leaves are petiolate; the petiole measures 1.0-1.7cm long. The leaf blades are shaped lanceolate and have obtuse to subacuminate apices, often minutely mucronate. The leaf blades measure 4.9-12.2cm long and 0.8-1.6cm wide. The leaves are thin textured and have five distinct nerves on the blade; the two outermost nerves are 0.5mm from the leaf margin.


The Inflorescence


The inflorescence is synanthous. The peduncle is erect to somewhat curved and measures 3.2-8.3cm long. The rachis is nodding and measures 2.3-5.5cm long. The flowers alternate distichously and are spaced 2.0-3.0mm apart. There are 1-2 appressed non-floriferous bracts at the base of the rachis. The flowers open from the distal section of the rachis.


The Flowers


Henrik Pedersen wrote that between 9 and 14 flowers grow on an inflorescence (Pedersen 1997). Curran’s field notes said that the flowers were white and had a red centre. Ames wrote that from this he assumed that the sepals and petals were white and the labellum was a reddish or purple colour (Ames 1908). The sepals and petals spread widely. The dorsal sepal is shaped oblong and has a rounded apex. The dorsal sepal measures 3.1-3.2mm long and 2.0-2.6mm wide. The dorsal sepal is three veined and has an entire margin. The lateral sepals are shaped broadly and obliquely ovate and have obtuse apices. The lateral sepals measure 3.0-3.2mm long and 2.3-2.6mm wide. The lateral sepals are three veined and have entire margins. The petals are recurved, shaped obovate to subspathulate and have obtuse apices. The petals measure 2.9-3.1mm long and 2.2-2.5mm wide. The petals are three veined and have entire margins. The labellum is porrect and 3-lobed. The labellum measures 1.8-2.1mm long and 2.6-2.9mm wide. The labellum is obscurely three veined, glabrous and has entire margins. The side lobes are erect; shaped obliquely oblong and have acute apices. The side lobes are equal to the mid-lobe. The mid-lobe is shaped subquadrate to transversely sub-rectangular and has a truncate apex, apiculate in its centre. There are two calli, the calli are somewhat bipartite and located at the base of the side lobes. A median callus is absent. The column is suberect to slightly incurved and measures 1.0-1.2mm long. The column is not hooded at its apex. Stelidia and column foot are absent.


Herbarium Specimens






Specimen 55 (photo)




Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)


I could not locate the specimen




Other herbarium specimens





I could find no record.


Flowering Season


Flowering plants have been collected in the wild during May and August.




I do not think this species is in cultivation


Similar Species




Other Information


Ames wrote in 1908 that the different sepals make it distinguishable from Dendrochilum pumilum. Ames also wrote that it differs from Dendrochilum affine because the mid-lobe is smaller than the side lobes. Dendrochilum pumilum and Dendrochilum affine have a flexuose and almost filiform peduncle which is different from Dendrochilum simulacrum’s terete peduncle.


L.O. Williams wrote (1951) that this species seemed to be the terminal species in a group of Dendrochilum that started with Dendrochilum purpureum (Dendrochilum philippinense var. purpureum). Henrik Pedersen disagreed (1997) due the leaves of Dendrochilum simulacrum being convolute not conduplicate. Pedersen wrote that he considered this species to be isolated within section Convoluta.




AMES, Oakes. 1908, Illustrations and studies of the Family Orchidaceae Facsimile 2, Ames Botanical Laboratory, North Easton, Massachusetts, Boston.


PEDERSEN, Henrik. 1997, The Genus Dendrochilum (Orchidaceae) in the Philippines – A Taxonomic Revision. Opera Botanica, Denmark


World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. 16 January 2009. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; accessed 16 January 2009.