Accepted name: Dendrochilum kingii (Hook.f.) J.J.Sm., Recueil Trav. Bot. Néerl. 1: 76 (1904).

Accepted name: Dendrochilum kingii var. tenuichilum J.J.Wood, Dendrochilum Borneo: 150 (2001)


Subgenus – Platyclinis. Section – Mammosa.


 
The text is below the photos. 
 
This photo was taken by George Lai of a plant in his collection and is used with permission.
This photo was taken by George Lai of a plant in his collection and is used with permission.
This photo was taken by the late Jim Comber and bequeathed to the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. The photo is reproduced with permission from the Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
This a drawing by Oakes Ames of Dendrochilum palawanense
This photo was taken by George Lai of a plant in his collection and is used with permission
This photo was taken by George Lai of a plant in his collection and is used with permission.
This photo was taken by George Lai of a plant in his collection and is used with permission.
This photo was taken by the late Jim Comber and bequeathed to the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. The photo is reproduced with permission from the Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.     

var. tenuichilum

This photo was taken by André Shuiteman and is used with permission by Jeffrey Wood

 

 

Synonyms

 

Platyclinis sarawakensis Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 31: 267 (1896).

Acoridium sarawakense (Ridl.) Rolfe, Orchid Rev. 12: 220 (1904).

Dendrochilum sarawakense (Ridl.) J.J.Sm., Recueil Trav. Bot. Néerl. 1: 66 (1904).

Dendrochilum palawanense Ames, Orchidaceae 2: 103 (1908).

Dendrochilum bicallosum J.J.Sm., Bull. Dép. Agric. Indes Néerl. 22: 17 (1909), nom. illeg.

Dendrochilum bigibbosum J.J.Sm., Bull. Dép. Agric. Indes Néerl. 45: 13 (1911).

 

Origin in the Wild

 

var. kingii

 

Brunei, Kalimantan, Peninsula Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak, Palawan

 

var. tenuichilum

 

Sarawak

 

Elevation in the Wild

 

var. kingii

 

Philippines (1250 – 1885 metres)

Borneo (10 - 900 metres)

 

var. tenuichilum

 

200 metres

 

Habitat in the Wild

 

var. kingii

 

This widespread species is found within a variety of habitats. In Borneo it is found in lowland, hill dipterocarp forest and hill forest on limestone, growing on trunks of trees and rarely in the crown. There is a record of this species growing terrestrially in podsol forest. In the Philippines this species grows in mossy scrub.

 

This species is found near Nabawan, Ulu Segama Forest Reserve, the Long Pa Sia area, Kun-Kun River in Sandakan District in Sabah.

 

Within Sarawak it has been found on Mount Dulit, Batu Hill, Semako Hill, Mount Matang and Mount Bengoh in Kuching District and on Mount Temabok.

 

On Palawan this species has been collected on Mount Mantalingajan and Mount Pulgar. Foxworthy found this species during March on Mount Pulgar at 1250 metres.

 

Within Kalimantan this species has been collected at Sungei Keribung.

 

var. tenuichilum

 

The type specimen was collected along the upper Ensirieng River in the Lanjak Entimau Protected Forest, Julau District. Another specimen has been collected from Upper Lawas close to the Kenaya River, Lawas District.

 

Jeffrey Wood described the habitat as Primary mixed dipterocarp forest.

 

The Plants Description

 

var. kingii

 

This is a tufted and clumping plant; the pseudobulbs are spaced 1.5cm apart along a branching rhizome. The rhizome grows to 10cm long. The pseudobulbs are shaped oblong to ovoid and measure 1.8-4cm long and 0.5-1.2cm in diameter. The leaves are petiolate; the petiole measures 1.5-8cm long. The leaf blades are shaped linear-lanceolate to narrowly elliptic and have obtuse to acute apices. The leaf blades measure 12-40cm long and 1-2.8cm wide. The leaves are leathery and have 5-6 distinct nerves.

 

var. tenuichilum

 

This is a tufted and clumping plant. The rhizome measures up to 10cm long and branches. The pseudobulbs are spaced 1.5cm apart along the rhizome, shaped oblong to ovoid and measure 1.8-4cm long and 0.5-1.2cm in diameter. The leaves are petiolate; the petiole measures 1.5-8cm long. The leaf blades are shaped linear-lanceolate to narrowly elliptic and have obtuse to acute apices. The leaf blades measure 12-40cm long and 1-2.8cm wide. The leaves are leathery and have 5-6 distinct nerves.

 

Inflorescence

 

var. kingii

 

The peduncle is erect and measures 12-33cm long. The rachis is curved and measures 9-11cm long. The rachis is quadrangular in cross-section and often zig-zag. The flowers alternate distichously and are spaced 3-7mm apart. There are 1-3 non-floriferous bracts at the base of the rachis. The flowers open from the proximal section of the rachis.

 

var. tenuichilum

 

The peduncle is erect and measures 17cm long. The rachis is curved and measures 2.5-11.5cm long. The rachis is quadrangular in cross-section and often zig-zag. The flowers alternate distichously and are spaced 3-7mm apart. (?) There are 1-3 non-floriferous bracts at the base of the rachis. (?) The flowers open from the proximal section of the rachis. (?)

 

I am unsure about parts of the description above and marked some parts with a ? to indicate where.

 

The Flowers

 

var. kingii

 

I have counted up to 24 flowers on an inflorescence but have not seen enough plants to give a variable answer. Jeffrey Wood wrote that the sepals are either green, greenish orange, pale brown, pinkish-brown, ochre-brown, lemon yellow, pale apple green with pink at the base. The flowers on Palawan specimens have been described as brick red. The petals are straw coloured or any colours mentioned for the sepals. The labellum is orange-brown, yellow, salmon-pink, dark pinkish-brown, greenish ochre. The calli are olive green. The column is yellowish-pink or orange brown. The stelidia are cream or white. The sepals and petals are widely spreading. The dorsal sepal is shaped oblong-elliptic, ovate-elliptic to narrowly elliptic and has an acute to acuminate apex. The dorsal sepal measures 5.5-8mm long and 2-3mm wide. The dorsal sepal has an entire margin and is three veined. The lateral sepals are slightly oblique and shaped oblong-elliptic, ovate-elliptic and have acuminate to narrowly acuminate apices. The lateral sepals measure 6-8mm long and 2-3.1mm wide. The lateral sepals have entire margins and are three veined. The petals are shaped obliquely ovate-elliptic, oblong-elliptic or narrowly-elliptic and have acute or subacute apices. The petals measure 4-6.6mm long and 2-3mm wide. The petals have entire or minutely erose margins and are three veined. The labellum is 3-lobed and measures 4-5.5mm long and 2.6-5mm wide. The side lobes are auriculate, erect and shaped subquadrate with obliquely rounded to obtuse apices. The mid-lobe is shaped oblong-ovate, broadly ovate to sub-elliptic and has an obtuse and shortly cuspidate or acute to acuminate apex. The margins are either entire or minutely erose. There are two rounded calli located between the side lobes; they often touch in the middle of the disc. The column is decurved and 2-3.5mm long. The column foot is short but noticeable. The apical hood is ovate, sub orbicular and has an entire or minutely dentate apex. The stelidia grow from the base or below the middle of the column and terminate below the column apex. The stelidia are wing like and either bidentate, tridentate or even reduced to 2 triangular teeth.

 

var. tenuichilum

 

Jeffrey Wood wrote that the flowers are brownish orange, the column light salmon-pink and the pollinia pale yellow. The sepals and petals spread widely. The dorsal sepal is shaped ovate-elliptic and has a subulate-acuminate apex. The dorsal sepal measures 4.8-6mm long and 2-2.6mm wide. The dorsal sepal has an entire margin and is three veined. The lateral sepals are shaped ovate-elliptic and have subulate-acuminate apices. The lateral sepals measure 5-6.1mm long and 2-2.6mm wide. The laterals have entire margins and are three veined. The petals are shaped oblong-elliptic and have acute apices. The petals measure 4-5.2mm long and 1.7-2.6mm wide. The petals have entire margins and are three veined. The labellum is 3-lobed and measures 3.9-4mm long. The side lobes are auriculate, erect and shaped subquadrate with obliquely rounded to obtuse apices. The mid-lobe is shaped oblong-subspathulate and has a rounded to subtruncate apex, apiculate in its centre. The margins are entire. There are 2 rounded calli between the side lobes. The column is decurved and 2.5-2.6mm long. The column foot is short and less noticeable than on variety kingii. The apical hood is ovate, sub orbicular and has an entire apex. The stelidia grow from below the middle of the column and are equal to the column apex. The stelidia are bifid, with one tooth longer and falcate.

 

Herbarium Specimens

 

Holotype

 

AMES

 

Specimen 45 (photo) (Dendrochilum palawanense)

 

National Herbarium Netherlands, (L)

 

I could not find the specimen (var. tenuichilum)

 

 

Isotype

 

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (K)

 

Specimen K000078250 (photo)

Specimen K000078252 (photo)

Specimen K000078253 (photo) (Dendrochilum palawanense)

Specimen 60711.000 (var. tenuichilum)

 

 

Syntype

 

National Herbarium Netherlands (L)

 

Specimen L0056509 (photo)

 

BO

 

Specimen (Dendrochilum bigibbosum)

 

 

Other herbarium specimens

 

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (K)

 

Specimen 60709.000

Specimen 55490.000

Specimen 24053.000

Specimen 53396.000

Specimen 63261.000

Specimen 70990.000

Specimen 61324.000

Specimen 53371.000

Specimen K000078251

Specimen 60708.000

Specimen 55758.000

Specimen 61325.000

Specimen 60710.000 (var. tenuichilum)

Specimen 61479.000 (var. tenuichilum)

 

FI

 

National Herbarium Netherlands (L)

 

Specimen L0322562

Specimen L0322563

Specimen L0322564

Specimen L0322565

Specimen L0322566

Specimen L0322567

Specimen L0322568

Specimen L0322569 (var. tenuichilum)

 

AMES

 

Specimen 98789 (photo) (Dendrochilum palawanense)

 

SAR

 

SING

 

A

 

KEP

 

MEL

 

AAU

 

The Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh (E)

 

Specimen E00061402

 

SAN

 

BO

 

Scent

 

Yes, a sweet scent, however some plants are unscented.

 

Flowering Season

 

var. kingii

 

Flowering plants have been collected in the wild from May to February. I have not seen this species in flower outside of the tropics. Flowering plants from Palawan have been collected in the wild from March to May.

 

var. tenuichilum

 

Flowering plants have been collected in the wild October.

 

Culture

 

var. kingii

 

I have not seen this species in cultivation in Europe. This species is in limited cultivation in South East Asia.

 

This species should be grown warmer than most other Dendrochilum.

 

var. tenuichilum

 

I have not seen any evidence of this species being grown in cultivation outside of the Hortus Botanicus in Leiden.

 

Similar Species

 

Dendrochilum rufum

Dendrochilum saccatum

Dendrochilum glossorhynchum (see this page for differences)

 

Other Comments

 

When Ames described Dendrochilum palawanense he wrote that this species was similar to Dendrochilum rufum and Dendrochilum kingii. Ames wrote that the stelidia in Dendrochilum palawanense and Dendrochilum rufum are basal and in Dendrochilum kingii the stelidia grew from the middle of the column (Ames 1908).

 

This species differs from D. kingii var. tenuichilum in the width of the epichile on the labellum, variety kingii is 2-3mm wide and variety tenuichilum is 1-1.6mm wide. The flower colour on D. kingii var. tenuichilum is usually brownish orange.

 

Jeffrey Wood wrote that the column is similar to Dendrochilum rufum but Dendrochilum kingii differs by its labellum shape, less prominent calli and no saccate hypochile. Jeffrey also wrote that Borneo populations show much variability in leaf length, inflorescence density, number of non-floriferous bracts, flower size, labellum mid lobe shape and degree of toothing on the stelidia.

 

The epithet is named after Sir George King who assisted in the publication of the Orchids of the Sikkim Himalaya. Var tenuichilum refers to the slender mid-lobe of the labellum.

 

Reference

 

AMES, Oakes. 1908, Illustrations and studies of the Family Orchidaceae Facsimile 2, Ames Botanical Laboratory, North Easton, Massachusetts, Boston

 

BEAMAN, Teofila, WOOD, Jeffrey, BEAMAN, Reed, BEAMAN, John. 2001, Orchids of Sarawak, Natural History Publications Borneo, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

 

PEDERSEN, Henrik. 1997, The Genus Dendrochilum (Orchidaceae) in the Philippines – A Taxonomic Revision. Opera Botanica, Denmark

 

WOOD, Jeffrey. 1997, Orchids of Borneo volume 3. The Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

 

WOOD, Jeffrey. Dendrochilum of Borneo, 2001. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia.

 

World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. 26 May 2008. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/ accessed 26 May 2008.